THE PREPAREDNESS PAPERS
The information in the "Preparedness Papers" is FREE. Each "paper" has a PRINT button, so you can print and reference them "offline" as needed.
SECTION I - WHAT SHOULD WE STORE?
Three suggested plans are given below for your guidance. The plans can be used as given or altered to suit your needs and storage conditions. If you alter these plans, it would be wise to refer to the Nutritional Table in Section X to make sure that you maintain the essential protein in your diet.
One item in particular should be in EVERY plan; vitamin C tablets. From 25-50 mg. (milligrams) per day is needed for each person because this vitamin will not store in the body, so you need a renewed supply every day in order to maintain good health.
PLAN 1 - You should initially determine your storage requirements by sitting down with your family, and making a list of foods and household necessities you know you use. If this is done, each member of your family will be recognized, and having participated, will tend to increase his interest in the storage plan. (The list, thus developed, will be used as a work sheet and permanent reference hereafter, so keep it on heavy bond or ledger paper so as to preserve it). Write the list on the left side of the paper. Make 13 vertical columns to the right of the list, with each column headed by a month plus a TOTAL for the year. Next plot the quantities you know you will use of each item under each month. The worksheet will then look like this:
After completing your worksheets, it is our recommendation that you purchase the absolute necessities first, such as those listed in PLAN 2 below. These are "existence" supplies which we urge you to get now so you will at least have survival amounts on hand while you are building up your storehouse of other products. Purchase the quantities indicated in the "TOTAL" column if your storage plan is for one year. See Section IV herein for a successful rotation plan for perishable products.
PLAN 2 - Of course, many individuals will want to store only sufficient quantities for an "existence" diet. Others may have different ideas as to what the basic foods are, but from research we have conducted, we recommend the following quantities for an existence diet. Also shown is the period of time the products will keep without spoiling. How to store these items is explained in Section II (The word "indefinite" means no limit.)
* If circumstances cause wheat to become the principal diet, the amount required per individual is somewhat greater.
** Some oils, such as Wesson, may keep many years.
*** See Section III.B Dried Milk (nonfat).
SECTION II – STORING TO PREVENT SPOILAGE
An ideal storage room for preserved food is a cool room in the basement that is dry all seasons of the year, free from steam, hot water and hot air pipes, odors (kerosene, onions, soap, petroleum products) and closed off from the rest of the house. Under these conditions the yearly temperature would be between 50 and 60°F. The door to this room should be opened only to remove food items. Exposure of cool canned goods to warm, moist air will cause rusting of the cans. Food in rusted cans is good if there has been no perforation in the wall of the can. If a basement room is not available, a closet or garage on the north side of the house may be used. It should be remembered that in peace or war, whenever disaster strikes, canned foods are the safest form of foods.
Ideal storage temperature for canned, bottled, and packaged goods is 40°F, in a dry place, the darker the better. Do not allow canned or bottled foods containing liquid to freeze. The ice would break the jars and may break the seal on both glass jars and tin cans. Store nothing on cement flooring. Place slats of lumber between cement and storage to prevent sweating or rusting. A few vitamins may be damaged by heat. The cold-pack process of canning, according to the directions of a good manual, causes the least heat and oxidation damage to foods. One or two vitamins are damaged by light, so keep bottled foods in the dark, if possible; cartons the bottles were purchased in, is an excellent protection from light.
Quick-freezing is an excellent method for retaining both flavor and nutritive values of many types of fresh foods. Dehydrated foods also retain these qualities. There is certainly no objection to home freezers, but don't forget the possible electric power failures.
Home or factory canned products, which are bulged (full of fermentation gas), should be destroyed. Home canned or bottled beans, corn and meat ought to be heated in an open pan after opening, heated at boiling temperatures for 20 minutes.
Canned goods, purchased from the markets, should be stored no longer than two years. After that time, the product may still be good to eat, but it may not be as palatable or contain the essential nutrients for good health as the fresher products. Therefore, home and factory canned and bottled goods most be rotated.
RULE 3. You cannot successfully store canned or bottled foods without spoilage, unless you faithfully follow a rotation plan.
SECTION III - NOTES ON SPECIFIC FOODS
A.CANNED AND BOTTLED FOODS
Fruits and Vegetables
Only high quality canned goods and vegetables, should be stored. Avoid the "bargain sales" of canned goods where the canner or store owner may unload inferior merchandise or old stock. There are several local as well as many nationally known labels of good quality. It is also better to purchase your storage goods from a store or market that has a rapid turnover of goods to insure that you are buying fresher merchandise.
These canned goods should be stored in cool, dry places between 35 and 60° F. Never store foods in the furnace room or near steam, hot water or hot air pipes. If the food is in glass containers, it should be stored in the dark. Most canned goods stored in the above temperature range can be kept for two years with only slight losses in vitamins and changes in color, flavor, and texture. Fruits with pits, such as cherries and plums, should not be stored for more than a year. There is an appreciable loss of Thiamin and vitamin C, as well as flavor and color changes, in food stored above 80°F.
Canned Milk (Evaporated)
If canned milk is stored at a temperature of 40 to 50° F, it can be successfully kept for about a year. Do not figure on a longer storage period. It is recommended that cans in storage be inverted (turned upside down) once every 60 days to prevent fat separation. High temperatures in storage will produce dark color, strong flavor, and in some cases fat separation in a very few months. A darker color develops as the storage period lengthens, but this is not necessarily a sign of spoilage. Give the can a few vigorous shakes before opening. If fat separation has occurred, the shaking will return the milk to a smooth solution that pours easily. This also prevents a watery and lumpy texture. One tall can of evaporated milk is equivalent to about 80% of one quart of fluid whole milk.
Good butter will keep well over a year when frozen. Its best if made from rich pasteurized sweet cream and is left unsalted.
Although presently less expensive, margarines are as nutritious as butter. All brands are required to contain at least 15,000 units of vitamin A per pound (well above the average for butter). It's best to buy those brands of margarine also containing 1000 to 2000 units of vitamin D, in addition to A. Read the label. Margarine will keep well over a year if stored in a home freezer at 0° F. At ordinary refrigerator temperature, however, flavor deteriorates rapidly. Unless you have a home freezer, don't buy more than a month's supply.
Canned Meat and Meat Products
Canned meat, meat products, poultry, and fish have generally the same shelf life as fruits and vegetables when stored under conditions recommended above. Canned hams are, in general, perishable items and should be stored under refrigerated conditions.
Cheese will not mold if it is wrapped for freezing and kept frozen. Most cheeses will last two years in a frozen condition, while others should be rotated in about one year. Experience of your own with your favorite types will tell you the proper rotation period.
B.DRIED AND DEHYDRATED FOODS
A proven and successful container for dried foods is a one-gallon bottle with a wide mouth screw lid. Bulk purchases of dried foods should be immediately placed in permanent containers, such as tightly
sealed bottles or the metal containers described under Wheat below. To leave the food in the original sacks or paper bags would subject it to insect infestation and moisture condensation, both of which invite spoilage.
Thirteen one-gallon bottles will store about 100 pounds of wheat. These bottles may be picked up for from many of the drive-ins cafes and diners. These bottles will fit in smaller areas than the metal containers and may be easier to handle for rotation.
Many problems involved in the storage of wheat can be avoided if wheat is purchased from a reputable miller. He should be informed of your intention and asked to supply you with clean, insect free, dry (less than 10% moisture) high protein wheat. If this wheat is properly stored, it can be preserved indefinitely without undergoing deterioration.
Do not store soft wheat for food. Purchase dark, hard, winter wheat (Turkey red) or dark, hard, spring or Marquis wheat. Protein should be above 11.5 %. The miller will know the protein content.
A good container for wheat is a metal, airtight, five-gallon, square can and with at least a 7" diameter opening in the top with a friction lid. This container, as well as the one-gallon bottles described above, is a proper barrier to insects, rodents, moisture and air. Three five-gallon cans will store approximately 100 pounds of wheat. The cans of wheat should be stored under the same conditions of temperature and moisture as mentioned under canned goods above.
Additional precautions may be taken if desired to eliminate possible insect infestation in the wheat, which may not be evident at the time of purchase. One of the following treatments is suggested:
1. Two ounces of crushed dry ice may be spread inside over the bottom of the can and the wheat immediately placed over the top of the dry ice. Sufficient time should be allowed for the dry ice to volatilize before placing the lid on the can or bottle (approximately 30 minutes). Should pressure develop within the can (bulging), then cautiously remove the lid momentarily and then replace it. This procedure should be carried out in a rather dry atmosphere to minimize the condensation of moisture on the bottom of the can. Each 100 pounds of wheat will require about 8 ounces of dry ice which, of course, should be crushed just before using to prevent evaporation.
2. A mixture of three parts ethylene dichloride and one part of carbon tetrachloride may be used to fumigate the wheat. Wheat should be placed in a container, different from the one to be used for permanent storage and the chloride mixture sprinkled over the top of the wheat. The lid of the container should be placed over the opening, but not pressed down. Vapors of this type mixture are heavier than air and will penetrate all parts of the container, killing the insects, larvae and eggs. After approximately 24 hours, the wheat should be removed from the container and allowed to air, permitting the chloride mixture to evaporate from the wheat. After 3 to 4 hours, the wheat may be placed in the containers as mentioned above (metal cans or bottles) and sealed with airtight lids. Each 100 pounds of wheat will require about 1 ½ ounces of the chloride mixture. Remember, successful storage of grain depends on the grain having low moisture and being free from insect infestation at the time of storage.
If the above precautions are followed, wheat may be placed in a "permanent" storage and held for a considerable period of time without rotation. It would be well, however, to make periodic checks for infestation of your supplies.
If wheat is ground for flour, it should be used within one week. After such grinding, oxidation of vitamin E begins immediately and will rapidly dissipate in a few days. There are many excellent whole wheat recipes and cook books on the market that you should try using with your home-ground, whole wheat flour.
Flour is more difficult to store than whole grain wheat, and may develop a smelly off-flavor after long storage; consequently, only the amount of flour normally used in a year should be stored. For best nutrition, it is recommended that only enriched flour be stored. Stored flour should be used as part of the regular food supply and replaced with fresh flour as it is used up. Flour should be stored in containers as mentioned above to avoid insect infestation and rodent damage as well as to prevent flavor changes during storage. Flour packed in hermetically sealed five-gallon cans is now available from commercial sources.
Dried Beans and Peas
Dried beans (pinto, navy, Lima, pink, red Mexican, and red kidney) and peas, can be stored for relatively long periods of time without deterioration. They must be kept dry and cool during storage and only products having less than 10% moisture should be stored. Insect infestation can be eliminated by treating beans or peas as described under Wheat. For the reasons stated above, an airtight container is recommended for best keeping.
Polished and brown long-gram rice can be handled in the same way as wheat, with the same precautions. Brown rice is not as stable as white polished rice and cannot be kept in storage for excessive periods of time, since rancidity is likely to occur.
Dried Milk (Nonfat)
Officially, nonfat dry milk solids are made by removing virtually all butterfat and water from fresh whole milk. The remaining portion is a nonfat or skim milk powder which contains all of the important nutrients of fresh whole milk except vitamins A and D and, of course, butterfat.
Non-instant brands take a bit longer to reconstitute into liquid milk and are less expensive than the instant brands. If you use dry milk for cooking, it's more economical to use the non-instant types which ordinarily are packaged in bulk; but when you use dry milk for drinking, the instant types would be less bothersome but more expensive. A best way to reconstitute the non-instant type of dry milk is to use an electric kitchen mixer or eggbeater, or shake vigorously in a sealed container until dissolved. One pound makes five quarts of fluid milk. Be sure to keep the reconstituted milk under refrigeration.
Nonfat dry milk is one of the most difficult foods to store. It becomes susceptible to flavor and odor changes upon storage, as well as bacterial spoilage, when the moisture content becomes too high. The ideal temperature of storage is 30 to 45° F. Since hi most cases it is not practical to store at this temperature, it is recommended that it be repacked in airtight cans or bottles immediately after purchase to give it protection from picking up harmful moisture. This is one product that most be kept dry.
Stored nonfat dry milk should be used as part of the regular food supply. Try cooking with it; it is far more economical and it does not affect the taste of most foods. As milk is taken from the reserved supply, it should be replaced with fresh nonfat dry milk. A practice which will keep the milk in continual rotation is one of mixing one part of the reconstituted dry milk solution with one part of fresh whole milk. The resultant drink is very acceptable as well as economical. If you drink straight nonfat dry milk, you can make it very tasty with additives, such as chocolate syrup and fruit juices. Stored dry milk, once reconstituted, should be used just like fresh milk.
Physicians say that one can live two months without impairment of health on dry milk alone if supplemented with vitamin C.
Stored in closed glass or metal containers, and kept cool, the storage schedule for nonfat dry powdered milk in unsealed cans is: 24 months at 40° F; 12 months at 70° F; 3 months at 90° F.
Milk purchased in hermetically sealed cans should store much longer.
Dried and Dehydrated Fruits and Vegetables (Purchased from grocery stores)
Like all dehydrated foods, the keeping quality of dried fruit and vegetables is dependent on keeping it dry. These items will, under proper storage conditions, keep for many years. Dried fruit should be kept in its original package and stored in metal or glass containers. If the fruit is kept in original packages, several kinds of fruit may be stored in one container.
Dehydrated vegetables will keep better if placed in airtight containers and using the dry ice method described under Wheat. These products should not be kept in storage for long periods; consequently, they should be used as part of the regular food supply and rotated with newly purchased dehydrated vegetables. If your family does not normally eat dehydrated fruits and vegetables in its daily diet, these products should not be stored. Dehydrated foods will not keep indefinitely and should not be placed in "permanent" storage. However, concentrated and low-moisture foods, such as "PERMA-PAK," will store well for several years if the container is not opened and is kept reasonably cool. We recommend that you try eating low-moisture foods before buying in quantity.
Dried eggs will keep for one year at 40° F, but much less time at higher temperatures. Fresh eggs may be stored in a water glass by placing them in a container with a tight lid. After the eggs (in the shell) are placed in a container, pour the water glass solution (sodium silicate) over the eggs and place the lid on tightly to prevent evaporation. The eggs will keep 9 to 12 months in this preparation if stored in temperatures below 50° F. One quart of sodium silicate mixed with 9 quarts of water will do 18 dozen eggs and can be purchased from a drug store. Dried eggs in sealed containers should keep much longer.
Dried eggs should be used only in recipes that require cooking. Their use is questionable in egg-milk drinks, mayonnaise, etc. In most recipes it is best to reconstitute the dried egg before using. 2 tablespoons firmly packed dried egg powder, with 2 ½ tablespoons of water, equals one medium whole egg. One standard measuring cup of firmly packed dried egg powder, with 1 ¼ cups of water, equals 8 medium whole eggs. To reconstitute dried egg, place the required amount of cool or lukewarm water in a deep bowl. Sprinkle the dried egg over the surface; blend until smooth with a fork or rotary beater. Do not prepare more egg than can be used within a day. Keep it tightly covered, cold and dry.Exposure to moisture causes it to become lumpy and develop a strong flavor. If not kept cold, it will lose its solubility and thickening power, and the flavor will become objectionable.
White and brown granulated sugar, if properly stored, can be kept indefinitely. Sugar will pick up moisture readily and soon becomes unfit for use if left in open containers in a damp place. This product should be stored dry in metal or glass containers.
Honey can be stored for long periods of time if it is pure. Impure honey contains a microscopic organism which will cause a slow fermentation if the honey is stored in unfavorable conditions. If honey becomes hard and turns to crystalline sugar, merely loosen lid and heat it in boiling water until it liquefies.
Cereals, Prepared Breakfast Foods, Macaroni, etc.
These products should be stored in the same way as powdered milk. They must be kept dry and free from insect infestation. If kept in recommended storage conditions and free from pests, these items will keep two years; however, it is best to keep them in constant rotation.
Several pounds of salt must be included in the storage program. The only precaution in storing this item is that of keeping it clean and dry. It can be stored indefinitely in the original container. Iodized salt, which has become discolored with yellow, has not been harmed and is still good for seasoning food.
Baking Powder and Soda
These products may be kept in the original containers up to two years, provided they remain cool and dry. These items must not be heated.
A three months supply of dated "instant type" dry, powdered yeast, such as Fleischmann's or Red Star, should be kept on hand and used regularly in a rotation plan in home baking. Yeast should be kept cool and dry and must not be heated. Canned yeast may be purchased and will keep almost indefinitely as long as the can is not opened. The yeast will be good for a year after opening the can. A recipe for making "everlasting" yeast is found in Section VII.
The storage life of frozen foods will depend on how well the food is packaged and the quality of the food at the time of packaging. Well packaged food can often be kept one or two years in a frozen condition, but it must be remembered that power failure usually accompanies widespread destruction. Power failure of 24 to 36 hours may render most frozen foods unfit for human consumption.
Improper storage lowers the quality of all frozen foods. For example, there is no assurance that the frozen liquids you buy are in good condition. For a test, shake the can to determine that it is solidly frozen; if the contents slosh about, reject the can.
The maximum storage period for frozen foods is contained in the manuals which accompanied the purchase of your home freezer. If you have lost this manual, we urge you to obtain another, as there are a number of foods that will not keep more than a few months.
Canned water, obtained from commercial sources, might also be stored in sufficient quantities to meet the family needs for one or two days. As surprising as it may seem, water is one of the most difficult products to preserve. Home canning of water is not recommended for drinking purposes, as the water is usually not palatable; however, if you plan to store tap water, make sure it's clean and sterile before you store it. Clean the empty bottles with hot, soapy water and rinse well. Fill bottles with clean, hot water to within one inch of the top, put lids on and process as follows:
1. Place bottles in a boiling water bath, boiling quart jars for 20 minutes, two-quart jars for 25 minutes, and gallon jars for 30 minutes.
2. After filling the bottles, use a medicine dropper and put two drops of Clorox or Purex per quart in each bottle. Then seal the lids tightly and store in a cool, dark place.
DO NOT put home-canned water in metal containers.
In case of emergency, water in your toilet tank (not bowl) and your hot water tank can be used. There is sufficient water in these two sources to last a family several days. If water from rivers or ponds is used, it should be boiled for two minutes or longer before drinking. In the event of an atomic bomb, water should be declared free from radio active fallout before boiling and drinking.
Don't let empty fruit bottles stand around. They should have either food or water in them. As bottled foods are used, re-clean each bottle and fill with water. It is well to keep on hand a supply of glass jars with appropriate lids so they can be used either for storing food or water.
SECTION IV – ROTATE YOUR PERISHABLES
Here again is RULE 3. You cannot successfully store canned or bottled foods without spoilage, unless you faithfully follow a rotation plan.
A number of methods may be used for rotation of foods. Two very successful methods will be explained. Perishable foods must be stored in a location that will provide easy access to them, both in removing older stock and replenishing with new stock. You cannot easily do this if you keep your food in the carton box or case in which it was purchased.
1. A good system is to build some shelves of 1" x 12" lumber, spacing the shelves wide enough apart to stack two #2 ½ size cans with an inch or two to spare. The 12" board will hold a surprising amount of cans.
2. Purchase a grease pencil and mark each article or can with the date of purchase, such as 2/1 for February 1961, 4/1 for April 1961, etc.
3. Divide your storage shelves into allotted space for each type of food, allowing one extra row for rotation.
For example, you can put six #2 ½ size cans in a row on a 12" board, stacked two high and three deep. Thus, if you were storing 24 cans of tomatoes, you would have four rows with six cans in a row. Leave the fifth row empty. The storage shelf would then look like this: (showing top view of cans stacked 2 high):
4. Store the oldest dates in row A, next oldest in row B, etc. The new replacement purchases will be put in the empty row E, explained next.
5.You are now ready to rotate. Since row A contains oldest stock, you first remove for use from row A.For each and can removed, purchase another as soon as possible and stack in Row E, after dating each can with the date of month and year. By doing this you will have row E filled at the time you have emptied row A. You then begin using out of row B, putting newly purchased stock in row A. This way you will always have one row being emptied while you are filling another, hence maintaining your storage quantities at all times.
1. This is a slanting-shelf plan to allow cans to roll to the low end of the shelf. Replacement purchases will be put in at the high end of the shelf, thus allowing the oldest stock to be removed from the low end.
2. Each article should be marked with date of purchase as indicated in Method 1.
3. Slanting shelves can be made any length and height as long as both ends are easily accessible.
Construct as follows:
a. Slant the shelf one inch to each linear foot of shelf.
b. Space the 3/8 inch guides carefully the entire length of the shelf so the cans will roll freely without binding.
c. Space between shelves according to size of cans used on each shelf.
d. Vertical supports should be spaced no more than 3 feet apart.
e. List of materials:
#1 shelves 1 x 12
#2 supports 1x2
#3 guides 3/8 x 1
#4 ends 3/8 x 1
HOW TO ROTATE
If you are following PLAN 1, explained in Section III, and know your family's monthly consumption of rotated foods, here is the best method to follow:
For example, if it was May 1st, you would refer to your storage list. The quantities indicated under May would then be physically removed from the storage shelves. The foods removed should be placed in your kitchen cupboards or on a separate shelf away from your storage. You will then use these foods during May. Purchase new stocks of the removed foods and put them on the storage shelves.
By having you physically remove products from the storage shelves in accordance with the monthly list and putting them in a separate location, you will be able to tell soon whether your appetites are changing and whether your list needs revision. When you find certain foods accumulating, merely reduce the monthly quantities on the master list. Thus, your master list becomes flexible to your appetites. The list will serve you faithfully only if you keep it accurate. Therefore, as you see the need for increasing or decreasing any product, change the quantities on your master list immediately.
We'll guarantee you one thing, your family's appetite will change over the years, and a rotation system such as the one explained above is the best way to keep pace with your changing food habits.
SECTION V – HOME-MADE PRODUCTS
We would urge you to make these products right away, and try them, so you will be prepared and will have gained experience in case you may some day be required to meet an emergency.
1 quart of warm potato water½ cake of yeast (or ½ tbsp. dry yeast)
1 level teaspoon of salt2 tbsp. of sugar
2 tablespoons of flour
Stir all ingredients well and put them in a warm place to rise until ready to mix for baking. Leave a small amount of the everlasting yeast for the start of the following time. Keep in cool place until a few hours before ready to use again. Add the same ingredients (except yeast) to the everlasting yeast for the next baking. This way, always keeping a bit of everlasting yeast, remaking some each time; will allow you to keep yeast on hand indefinitely.
1 can of lye ½ cup of ammonia
½ cup of powdered borax2 ounces of lanolin
11 cups of melted and strained fat 5 cups of rain or soft water
1/3 cup of sugar 3 ounces of glycerin
4 tsp. of aromatic oil of rose, lavender, or pine
3 tbsp. of finely ground oatmeal (this is optional)
Measure the rain water into crock or enamel pan, never aluminum or tin, and add to it with vigorous stirring one at a time until dissolved: lye, ammonia, borax and sugar. Continue stirring until cool. Slowly pour in fat, stirring constantly as you pour. Add fragrance and continue stirring for another 15 minutes. While doing so add lanolin, glycerin and oatmeal. By this time the mixture should be thick and creamy. Pour into molds the size of soap bars you want. A glass baking dish, lined with waxed paper, is good to use. Let stand until firm. Wrap in wax paper. Let stand a week before using.
5 lbs. of grease ½ cup of ammonia
½ cup of powdered borax1 can of lye
½ cup of coal oil or kerosene
Melt lye in quart of cold water. Dissolve borax in one cup of water and add lye to mixture. Melt grease and add ammonia and coal oil. Add to lye mixture. Stir until congeals. Pour into milk cartons. This soap may be ground or grated to produce granulated, laundry soap. Never use aluminum or tin containers in making soap.
SECTION VI - EMERGENCY SANITATION
Water is the most important item to consider in emergency sanitation. To insure a safe supply for emergency use, you should store at least seven (7) gallons of water NOW for each member of your family. (See Section V for storage details). Don't wait until an emergency happens, because it may then be too late to act. Public water service, in case of disaster, is easily interrupted or contaminated. Thousands of people trying to fill water containers at the same time could reduce pressure in the water mains to a point of no supply to your home.
Paper cups and plates are handy items to have if the water supply is cut off because they need not be washed and can be burned with the rubbish. Paper towels and napkins are good, too, when laundry needs cannot be met. It's wise to store a good supply for emergency use. (See also under Paper Supplies).
Even if water is available, local authorities may ask you not to use flush toilets, wash basins and other fixtures connected with soil pipes. The sewer mains may be broken or clogged, which would make it impossible to carry off such wastes; or water may be needed for fire fighting. It is necessary for every family to know emergency methods of waste disposal. You should know where to find the shutoff valve that controls the water service to your home and all members of your family should be acquainted with its location.
Failure to properly dispose of human wastes can lead to epidemics of such diseases as typhoid, dysentery and diarrhea. At the same time, sewage must be disposed of in ways that will prevent contamination of water supplies used for drinking, cooking, bathing, laundering, and other domestic purposes. Here are simple steps that any family can take to prevent such dangers and discomforts:
(a) Your first task is to make some temporary toilet provision for members of your family, especially the children. Almost any covered metal container will do. A small kitchen garbage container with a foot-operated cover can be put to toilet use in emergencies. Anything that has a cover and will hold the contents until you can dispose of them will serve for sanitary purposes at first.
(b) Keep on hand at least one extra 20-gallon garbage can or other waterproof container with a tightly fitted cover. This should be lined with paper (preferably waterproof) and the cover should be fastened to the can to prevent its loss. Such a can may be used for the emergency storage of body wastes until the public sewerage system can be put back into action. Empty your smaller vessel into it as often as necessary. A small amount of household disinfectant should be added after each use. If you live in an apartment, you may not have a large garbage can or room to keep one. In that case two smaller covered pails or other containers will do just as well.
(c) Keep a shovel on hand if there are unpaved yard areas nearby. Burying human waste matter under 12 to 24 inches of earth is a satisfactory method of emergency disposal. Never deposit wastes, liquid or solid, on the surface of the ground. Insects and rodents may carry infections to other humans.
(d) Where radioactive fallout does not present a hazard, a temporary pit privy may be constructed in a yard area for use by several families. This offers a good method of waste disposal over extended periods of time. The structure must provide reasonable privacy and shelter.
(e) Persons in city apartments, office buildings, or homes without yards, should keep a supply of waterproof containers on hand for emergency waste disposal. Where flush toilets cannot be used and open ground is not available for the construction of privies, such disposable containers offer a practical method of emergency waste collection and disposal. The used containers may be stored in tightly covered garbage cans or other waterproof utensils fitted with lids. Homemade soil bags for this purpose may be prepared very easily by putting one large grocery bag inside another with a layer of shredded newspaper or other absorbent material between. Apartment dwellers should have sufficient grocery bags on hand now for possible emergencies. A supply of old newspapers will come in handy for other sanitary uses, too, for wrapping garbage, lining containers, insulating bedding from floors, and lining clothes against the cold.
(f) Insecticides and deodorants, such as spray bombs, should be used when necessary to control odors and insect breeding in containers that cannot be emptied immediately. At least 2 quarts of household bleach solution should be kept on hand for disinfecting purposes. Keep on hand also an extra supply of toilet tissue, plus a supply of sanitary napkins.
(g) If you have a baby in your home, it is best to keep an ample supply of disposable diapers on hand for emergency use. If these are not available, emergency diaper needs can be met by lining rubber pants with cleansing tissue, toilet paper, scraps of cloth or other absorbent materials.
For proper sewage disposal, you will need...
SECTION VII - NUTRITIONAL TABLE
It is important that you maintain essential protein in your diet. At least 2 ounces of animal or 4 ounces of vegetable protein are recommended for each person daily. The following are the main sources of protein:
The following are considered to be the main sources of food energy in addition to their protein content: